Central to sustainable growth is the EU "Triple 20 by 2020" target, which targets the climate, renewable energy, and energy use. In Sweden the energy target is to reduce the energy to GDP ratio by 20 percent between 2008 and 2020. Reports indicate that the target will probably not be reached without further action. It is important to seek answers on how energy and climate policies affect energy use. The project aims at empirically analyse energy use in Swedish industry and the driving forces behind energy efficiency. Sweden has the ambition to show the way to a sustainable society and needs to invest in economics research to better understand the impacts of energy and climate policies. Internationally speaking the project has access to unique data, and has a direct link to practical politics; the results will definitely serve as a contribution to the discussion of sustainability and energy targets beyond 2020, a discussion already ongoing in the EU and Sweden.