Lack of landscape perspectives in present policy instruments has meant that the Swedish “Living Forests” national environmental quality objective will not be achieved, according to researchers from SLU, Uppsala University and Bern University of Applied Sciences. The researchers suggest a landscape planning approach, which includes a tax-fund system, where revenues from a production focused tax compensates forest owners giving up large land areas for conservation.
More information available in Swedish (switch language in upper right corner) or in below references.
Zabel, A., Bostedt, G. & Ekvall, H. (2018): Policies for Forest Landscape Management – A Conceptual Approach with an Empirical Application for Swedish Conditions. Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 86, pp. 13-21. Bostedt, G., de Jong, J., Ekvall, H., Hof, A., Sjögren, J. & Zabel, A. (2021): An Empirical Model for Forest Landscape Planning and its Financial Consequences for Landowners. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, In press. Michanek, G., Bostedt, G., Ekvall, H., Forsberg, M., Hof, A.R., de Jong, J., Rudolphi, J. & Zabel, A. (2018): Landscape Planning – Paving the Way for Effective Conservation of Forest Biodiversity and a Diverse Forestry? Forests, Vol. 9, pp. 523. Bostedt, G., Zabel, A. & Ekvall, H. (2019): Planning on a wider scale – Swedish forest owners’ preferences for landscape policy attributes. Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 104, pp. 170-181. Michanek, G., Bostedt, G., de Jong, J., Ekvall, H., Forsberg, M., Hof, A., Sjögren, J. & Zabel von Felten, A. (2019): Landskapsplanering av skog – för biologisk mångfald och ett varierat skogsbruk. Rapport 6909, Naturvårdsverket, Stockholm.
The cost for industries when it comes to electricity supply interruptions are considerable. It also appears to increase over time, according to recent EFORIS report by CERE members.
“In 2016 the estimated cost of a one-hour outage for an average industrial facility in Sweden was approximately 23 times larger than the value of the electricity not delivered (SEK 9502 versus SEK 400), whereas the cost in 2004 was approximately 13 times the market value of the electricity not delivered.” The value of lost load in Swedish industry, EFORIS report 2021:787
The numbers varies across firms and sectors from about 120 and 105 times the market value of the failed delivery of electricity for an average motor vehicle firm to about five times the value in the pulp and paper industry. The production interruption is noticeable longer than the actual power outage according to the firms answering the study survey.